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David Greene

David L. Greene

Research Professor


David L. Greene is a Research Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and a Senior Fellow of the Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy.

In 2013 he retired from Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a Corporate Fellow. He is an author of more than 275 professional publications on transportation and energy issues, including 100 articles in peer-reviewed journals and 12 National Research Council reports.

The 2012 recipient of the Transportation Research Board’s Roy W. Crum Award, he is also an emeritus member of both the Energy and Alternative Fuels Committees of the TRB and a lifetime National Associate of the U.S. National Academies. He received the Society of Automotive Engineers’ Barry D. McNutt Award for Excellence in Automotive Policy Analysis, the Department of Energy’s 2007 Hydrogen R&D Award, DOE 2011 Vehicle Technologies R&D Award, and DOE Distinguished Career Service Award. Greene was recognized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for contributing to the IPCC’s receipt of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize.


Greene’s research interests are focused on energy use in transportation and policies to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and achieve a transition to sustainable energy sources. He has published extensively on automotive fuel economy and the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards and served on all four National Research Council committees that evaluated US fuel economy policy for cars and light trucks.

How technology and policy can accomplish a transition to sustainable energy for transportation is a current focus of his research and modeling. Other research interests include the costs to the US economy of petroleum dependence, the “rebound effect” of increased vehicle use due to increased fuel economy, and modeling consumers’ choices of vehicles and fuels.

Research Sponsors

  • Energy Foundation
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Argonne National Laboratory
  • US Department of Energy, Fuel Cell Technologies Office
  • US Department of Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office
  • Energy Information Administration
  • Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality
  • Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics
  • International Council on Clean Transportation
  • California Air Resources Board
  • Pew Center on Global Climate Change (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions)


PhD, The Johns Hopkins University, Geography and Environmental Engineering, 1978

MA, University of Oregon, 1973

BA, Columbia University, 1971


D.L. Greene and J.G. Welch, 2018. “Impacts of fuel economy improvements on the distribution of income in the US”, Energy Policy, vol. 122, pp. 528-541.

D.L. Greene, A. Hossain, J. Hofmann, G. Helfand and R. Beach, 2018. Consumer willingness to pay for vehicle attributes: What do we know?, Transportation Research A, vol.118, pp. 258-279.

D.L. Greene, A. Hossain, J. Hofmann and R. Beach, 2018. "Consumer Willingness to Pay for Vehicle Attributes: What is the Current State of Knowledge?", EPA-420-R-18-016, Assessment and Standards Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI, July, 2018.

Wali, B., Greene, D. L., Khattak, A. J., & Liu, J. (2018). “Analyzing within garage fuel economy gaps to support vehicle purchasing decisions–A copula-based modeling & forecasting approach”, Transportation Research Part D, vol. 63, pp. 186-208.

D.L. Greene and G. Parkhurst, 2017. “Decarbonizing Transport for a Sustainable Future: Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change”, in Proceedings of the Fifth EU-US Transportation Research Symposium of the same name, Transportation Research Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, Washington, DC.

“A Trillion Gallons of Gasoline”, On-Point 5:17, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, August, 2017,

D.L. Greene, J. Liu, A.J. Khattak, B. Wali, J.L. Hopson and R. Goeltz, 2017. “How does on-road fuel economy vary with vehicle cumulative mileage and daily use”, Transportation Research Part D, vol. 55, pp. 142-161.

"Cost, Effectiveness and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles, Report of the Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles," Phase 2; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

D.L. Greene and J.G. Welch, The Impact of Increased Fuel Economy for Light-Duty Vehicles on the Distribution of Income in the U.S.: A Retrospective and Prospective Analysis, White Paper 2:17, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, The University of Tennessee, available at, March 2017.

“Rollback Fuel Economy Standards? For Whose Benefit?”, On Point 1:17, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, the University of Tennessee, available at, March 2017.

Greene, D.L., A.J. Khattak, J. Liu, X. Wang, J.L. Hopson and R. Goeltz, 2017. “What is the evidence concerning the gap between on-road and Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy ratings?”, Transport Policy, vol. 53, pp. 146-160.

D.L. Greene and C.Z. Liu, “U.S. Oil Dependence 2014: Is Energy Independence in Sight?”, Energy Policy, vol. 85, pp. 126-137, June 10, 2015.

D.L. Greene, Alternative Transportation Infrastructure in the U.S.: Status and Challenges, White Paper 1:15, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, January, 2015.

C. Liu and D.L. Greene, 2015. “Consumer Choice of E85: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability”, Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2454, pp. 20-27.

D.L. Greene, C.Z. Liu and S. Park, 2014. “Public Policy and the Transition to Electric Drive Vehicles in the U.S.: The Role of the Zero Emission Vehicles Mandates”, Energy Strategy Reviews, vol. 5, pp. 66-77.

C. Liu, D.L. Greene and D.S. Bunch, 2014. “Vehicle Manufacturer Technology Adoption and Pricing Strategies under Fuel Economy/Emissions Standards, and Feebates”, The Energy Journal, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 71-90.

D.L. Greene, S. Park and C. Liu, 2013. “Analyzing the Transition to Electric Drive Vehicles in the U.S.”, Futures, vol. 58, April 2014, pp. 34-52.

D.L. Greene, S. Park and C.Z. Liu, 2014. Transition to Electric Drive Vehicles: Public Policy Implications of Uncertainty, Network Externalities, Tipping Points and Imperfect Markets, White Paper 1-14, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, University of Tennessee.

D.L. Greene, D.H. Evans and J. Hiestand, “Survey evidence on the willingness of U.S. consumers to pay for automotive fuel economy”, Energy Policy, vol. 61, pp. 1539-1550, 2013. 

D.L. Greene, S. Park and C. Liu, Analyzing the Transition to Electric Drive in California, White Paper 4-13, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, June, 2013. 

D.L. Greene, R.S. Lee and J.L. Hopson, OPEC and the Costs to the U.S. Economy of Oil Dependence, White Paper 1-13, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, February, 2013. 

G. Upreti, D.L. Greene, K.G. Duleep and R. Sawhney, “Fuel cells for non-automotive uses: Status and prospects”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, volume 37, issue 8, pp. 6339-6348, 2012. 

D.L. Greene, “Rebound 2007: Analysis of National Light-Duty Vehicle Travel Statistics”, Energy Policy, vol. 41, pp. 14-28, 2012. 

D.L. Greene, “What’s Greener than a VMT Tax? The Case for an Indexed Energy User Fee to Finance U.S. Surface Transportation,” Transportation Research D-Environment, vol. 16, pp. 451-458, 2011. 

D.L. Greene, “Uncertainty, Loss Aversion and Markets for Energy Efficiency”, Energy Economics, vol. 33, pp. 608-616, 2011. 

Z. Lin and D.L. Greene, "Predicting Individual On-road Fuel Economy Using Simple Consumer and Vehicle Attributes", SAE Technical Paper Series No. 11SDP-0014, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, April 12, 2011. 

D.L. Greene and S.E. Plotkin, "Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation", Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, 2011. 

Bunch, D.S. and D.L. Greene, “Potential Design, Implementation, and Benefits of a Feebate Program for New Passenger Vehicles in California,” State of California Air Resources Board and the California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California, 2011.

Rubin, J., P.N. Leiby and D.L. Greene, “Tradable Fuel Economy Credits: Competition and Oligopoly,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 315-328, 2009. 

D.L. Greene, “Feebates, Footprints and Highway Safety,” Transportation Research Part D, vol. 14, pp. 375-384, 2009. 

D.L. Greene, J.L. Hopson and J. Li, “Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist’s Perspective,” Energy Policy, vol. 34, pp. 515–531, 2006. 

David Greene

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